The Science Nobel Prizes Explained in 3 Minutes

The Science Nobel Prizes Explained in 3 Minutes


The Nobel Prize committee gives awards to
those who provide – “the Greatest Benefit to Mankind” and a handful of dedicated scientists
make the cut every year. This year’s winners tinkered with evolution
in the lab, developed therapeutics that fight cancer and created lasers so powerful that
they can peek inside an atom. They’re investigating science at the micron
level, and their groundbreaking discoveries are completely changing the way we look at
our own world. There are three major science categories for
the Nobel Prizes*; medicine, chemistry, and physics. And the Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded
for breakthroughs in immunotherapy. James Allison and Tasuku Honjo developed research
that led to the rise of new immunotherapy drugs. See, our immune system has specialized cells,
called t-cells, that attack any foreign invaders, like viruses or bacteria. Think of them like your system’s bodyguard,
they’re looking out for any enemies in your midst. But that’s the thing with cancer, your own
cells are the enemy,so the t-cells don’t know to fight them off. So Allison and Honjo found a way to tweak
the t-cells by blocking two specific receptors; CTLA-4 and PD-1. This helped activate the immune system to
go after cancer cells. Human trials started in the 2010’s and they’ve
been effective against a whole host of cancers. Next up, Chemistry. Frances Arnold, George Smith, and Sir Gregory
Winter split the Nobel Prize for their respective work on directing evolution of enzymes and
antibodies. You see, enzymes are the workhorse of the
cell. They’re biomolecules with distinct jobs
that help us live, like synthesizing our nutrients into energy. Arnold’s research used enzymes’ natural
ability to adapt and mutate, and she mutated them to the point where they would perform
even better than nature intended. This was used by other scientists for years
and goes beyond medicinal practices. For instance, she converted sugars to alcohol
for biofuels, which could help pave the path for fewer fuel emissions. Smith discovered something called phage display,
a method of hacking bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect bacteria, to create
new proteins. And then Winter used this technique to direct
the evolution of antibodies, leading to new therapies to treat diseases like rheumatoid
arthritis. And finally Physics, let’s roll in the lasers. This prize was split among Arthur Ashkin who
developed “optical tweezers” and Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland who won “for
their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.” Ashkin’s “optical tweezers” started
off with the idea that focused laser beams have concentrated photons in the center and,
by placing two beams near each other, they can create a “radiative” pressure on small
objects. This causes objects to be trapped between
two lasers like a tractor beam out of movie. This is useful for scientists who want to
trap tiny things, like cells and atoms. Now Strickland and Morou creating controllable,
ultra-sharp laser beams. Back in the 1980’s, instruments weren’t
equipped to handle super powerful lasers yet, but Strickland and Morou found that if they
stretched out the laser pulses, it would reduce its peak power enough. The laser then could be compressed into the
ultrashort high-intensity pulses they wanted, allowing us to look inside individual atoms! This laser tool is used for semiconductors,
medical stents, and in corrective eye surgeries. So there are immeasurable applications to
what these nobel winners have created. Each one of them has made a technique or tool
that’s revised our view of the microscopic world that we’re only still learning about. They’ve laid important foundations in science
that are only extending our frontiers of knowledge about the bigger world around us. Like science in your day? Go ahead and subscribe. And if groundbreaking science to benefit mankind
is too vague of a standard for you, check out this detailed video on what else you need
to win a Nobel Prize. Although Nobel Prizes have been awarded for
to 923 people, only 48 of them have been women and Donna Strickland marks the 3rd woman ever
to win a Nobel Prize in Physics. You go Donna. Thanks for watching!

100 thoughts on “The Science Nobel Prizes Explained in 3 Minutes

  • October 7, 2018 at 11:04 am
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    Who loves Seeker? 😍

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:04 am
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    4 th here

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:05 am
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    I thought it's Jack Black until I saw the name

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:05 am
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    And here we are in India, still believing in homeopathy and Ayurveda and witchcraft in this age of modern medicine

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:06 am
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    Tools made of light boi, gonna clone my ass soon…

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:06 am
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    Love you all.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:06 am
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    I wonder if anyone is on kickstarter also

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:07 am
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    What up peeps

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:14 am
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    That's great news 🙌🙌🙌🙌

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:15 am
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    I love this guy!

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:19 am
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    Nice try but you won't get a nobel prize for that. 👍😂

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:19 am
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    T-series

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:22 am
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    Experiment of physics is so cool !

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:23 am
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    "Awards" for people doing their job are ridiculous but if we're going to have them, recognition for "science" accomplishments should be the only awards we have.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:25 am
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    Is channel only presented with people who are in pursuit of an acting career? These people are not interested in science whatsoever. Capitalism gave us Trump and these people.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:28 am
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    Knock, knock. Who's there?
    Nobel.
    Nobel who?
    I didn't ring the bell, I knocked, give me a "no bell" prize.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:33 am
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    Even if scientists are way off from reality or dead wrong, they will win the nobel prize if it fits the mainstream preconceived narrative even if that narrative happen to be divorced with reality. That's mainstream in a nutshell, they ignore everything that doesn't fit or contradicts with mainstream narrative even if it is backed with mountains of evidence. Electric Universe is a great example, backed with mountains of evidence, ignored by mainstream because it contradicts and debunks standard model.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:36 am
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    More videos like this Seeker, this was brilliant.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:41 am
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    I dare you show your viewers the countries and people who get the most nobel prizes.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:45 am
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    Micron level? Do you mean the nano level and the pick level?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:47 am
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    T-Cells?
    Hataraku…

    Hataraku……

    Hataraku saibou
    ..
    Saibou ….

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:54 am
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    Could you do a video explaining the effects of DMT and the actual science behind it and how it links to near death experiences and death itself. Maybe do a series on how psychedelics effect the brain and this could be one episode.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:59 am
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    you look like codi

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:00 pm
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    Turning awards next

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:00 pm
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    The Nobel prize should also include Maths and Computing.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:04 pm
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    Noble prizes are bullshit

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:04 pm
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    Wow! That’s amazing…

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:07 pm
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    seems like an effective cancer cure might've been useful to people for the last 8 years
    I remember watching a VICE special on a cancer cure that involved attaching genetically modified AIDS virus to T-cells that targeted and attacked cancer cells that was supposedly highly effective

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:09 pm
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    Where can i know who all won the noble prize and any site for ?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:15 pm
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    His hand movements are very distracting

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:20 pm
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    Scientists are the true humans saviors. Not those preachers.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:24 pm
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    new trace?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 12:34 pm
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    I also want to win a nobel prize !

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 1:07 pm
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    Almost all White people….

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 1:11 pm
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    These scientists are great and deserve the Nobel Prize, but when they sell the technology that they discovered to big business it's a huge problem. Business is never 'nobel'. Think about how many discoveries have been held back due to big business and their pursuit of the all mighty dollar.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 1:27 pm
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    Who cares how many of them are women? There are only two kind of scientists: those who deserve a Nobel prize and those who don't (yet). Congratulations to all the winers, whatever their gender may be. Get your politics out of science.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 1:55 pm
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    How do the winner split the prize btw I mean the cash prize of 1m d

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:13 pm
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    Nobel Nobel?
    Yes Ethics?
    Selling Dynamit?
    No Ethics!
    Keeping millions?
    No Ethics!
    Founding Prize?
    Ha ha ha

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:19 pm
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    Heeeey…. there's a new guy.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:25 pm
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    The only prizes that matter.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:40 pm
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    Aww

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:44 pm
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    Peeking inside of an atom sounds pervy.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 2:59 pm
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    He's so handsome omg

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:15 pm
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    Wait if lasers can hold things in place. Would it be possible to hold plasma in place?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:16 pm
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    With all these amazing scientific discoveries and breakthroughs yet some still believe in their holy books.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:20 pm
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    Sad to know .. my country india behind centuries in science compared to other.. due to mass believe in superstitious things

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:27 pm
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    Why no mathematics ?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:36 pm
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    Why no Nobel Prize for Black Panther ? Racists.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 3:48 pm
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    There is no need to imagine when you have cells at work to illustrate them

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:04 pm
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    I want a nobel prize for nothing 😂

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:04 pm
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    Why does their background now look like an iPhone X lock screen wallpaper though?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:38 pm
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    The coin… who though they would also show the 1 Penny with a microscopic engrave on it?
    So small that you can't see it with your eyes and you must use a microscope
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oES1gpvT0I

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:56 pm
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    Don't use phrases like "than nature intended" . It give agent to Nature and feeds the perception that things like nature and evolution are guided by a mind (or creator).

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:56 pm
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    Josh new dad confirmed

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 4:59 pm
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    Hey it's that guy from Disney's Under Wraps!

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 5:52 pm
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    Forin is to vaige . It can be easily fooled when batria or virus cover themselves in your own cell memberanes. Harmful would be much better. Most of time cancer cells are like any other cells unless can how stay in hiding unless argrovated or exposed some how .but cancer or tumors might actually be holding a poison. And that's immune system doesn't act

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 7:07 pm
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    The Enzyme that breaks down sugars into Biofuel reminds me of an article i read from cracked (with citations) that talked about an engineered bacterium designed to break down plant fibers into ethanol. The only issue is it nearly killed the world.

    From the cracked article
    "Whereas the common man might address these issues by simply not doing any plowing and opting to get plowed instead, scientists at the biotech company thought of a much more elegant solution: Engineer a bacterium that aggressively decomposes dead plant material–specifically wheat–into alcohol. And in 1990, they did exactly that. The bacterium was called Klebsiella planticola, and it nearly murdered everybody; you just don't know it yet.

    Klebsiella planticola is of the enterobacterium family, microbes that typically reside inside the guts of mammals, but this particular strain inhabits the root systems of most terrestrial plants. Actually, every root system that's ever been tested for the presence of K. planticola has come up positive, so it is as near to a universal plant bacterium as there has ever been (you should remember that part, because it's going to come in handy later). In its pre-modified, natural form, K. planticola is partly responsible for the decomposition of all plant matter–a vital step in the natural life cycle–and it's notoriously aggressive in this role. That's why it was picked out for experimentation in the first place: Like an Old Testament God, K. planticola is both omnipresent and incredibly belligerent."

    To read it your self http://www.cracked.com/article_18503_how-biotech-company-almost-killed-world-with-booze.html

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 7:50 pm
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    You go Donna!

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 8:17 pm
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    Hope Sheldon wins one on BBT

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 8:34 pm
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    You have to give up ur life for a noble prize….

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 9:31 pm
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    There are so many fields by which people change the life of millions and Nobel prize for only those who works in these six fields, this sounds to be need a change.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 9:35 pm
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    They said 923 people won the Nobel Prize, Than only 48 of them are alive now…….Sorry it's 48 of them have been women that is what they said.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 9:35 pm
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    WHY AREN'T THERE ANY BLACK PEOPLE THAT HAVE WON A NOBEL PRIZE OTHER THAN PEACE OR ECONOMICS???? WTF??? NOBEL COMMITTEE ARE RACIST. LET'S GET SOME DIVERSITY IN THERE…. AMIRITE??????????? THUMBS UP IF YOU DISAGREE

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 10:45 pm
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    what about iron man????
    when will he receive the nobel prize????
    he should have won 2-4 until now!

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 10:46 pm
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    Trace, better news less new hipsters please.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:05 pm
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    He’s boring

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:05 pm
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    He’s boring

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:05 pm
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    He’s boring

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:12 pm
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    And Donna Strickland won her prize with a paper she published while still a graduate student, or perhaps its impact over time.

    Reply
  • October 7, 2018 at 11:56 pm
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    Odd that there is a channal that explains things that I have knowed sense 3rd grade in school. Also Noble invented the stable from of dinamite… Good chap… För Knug och fosterland!

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 1:37 am
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    Donna Strickland works at the university in my city 🙂

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 2:21 am
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    A professor from my university got one!!

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 2:59 am
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    He is way too cute… 😅

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 3:37 am
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    Comon wake up cancer is not a sickness to cure with medicine!!!!!

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 4:54 am
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    Bio nobel

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 5:30 am
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    Humankind* not mankind.
    Let’s use up-to-date language:)

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 7:01 am
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    if this is true then why the the hell did they give that black p.o.s. nobama one, just what in the hell did he contribute ??? i don't care who this pisses of either !!!!! right is right and wrong is wrong !!!

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 7:01 am
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    Whoever did the audio on this video did a poor job. It's really uncomfortable to have that "pumping" pulsing/clipping beat in the background.

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 8:00 am
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    Damn, Josh is a hotty.

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 8:41 am
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    Now explain the Nobel peace prize, I think based off Obama you win it by dropping more bombs than anyone else in world history and assassinating foreign leaders and using CIA to train ISIS?

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 9:19 am
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    Seeker has NO credibility aftrer their whole "gender" video

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 1:03 pm
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    3 minutes are nowhere near enough for such a topic. I know you want more views from low attention span people, but this is not quality content people expect from Seeker.

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 3:53 pm
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    Justice for Rosalind franklin ,give her what she deserves

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 6:35 pm
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    The video is not exactly 3 minutes should have said about 3 minutes

    Reply
  • October 8, 2018 at 6:35 pm
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    I like the video tho

    Reply
  • October 9, 2018 at 2:36 am
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    The Noble Prize is a front to use science for military purposes.

    Reply
  • October 9, 2018 at 2:42 am
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    CTLA -4 -CytoToxic Lymphocyte Antigen 4?
    What's PD-1?

    Reply
  • October 9, 2018 at 9:23 am
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    Didn't ted upload this once ?

    Reply
  • October 10, 2018 at 4:21 pm
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    Did anybody notice that he explained it in 3mins 48 seconds and not in 3 minutes😄😄👍👍👌👌

    Reply
  • October 11, 2018 at 7:51 pm
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    Bad practice is to find cure to illness, good practice is to find cause of illness and prevent. there are like 200 different illnesses which goes under Cancer name. Scientists have no clue how to fight them, because they have no clue what starts them. Trial and fail is not an solution. It's waste of money and time.

    Reply
  • October 12, 2018 at 7:24 am
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    Resume for professor poste promotion of other University:
    One line your skills and distinction: Nobel laureate.
    Guess some university will be hunting.
    And institutions.

    Reply
  • October 17, 2018 at 4:18 pm
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    This new host is handsome, it's my first time seeing him

    Reply
  • October 20, 2018 at 6:21 pm
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    Josh, you look great!

    Reply
  • October 21, 2018 at 11:44 am
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    I prefer Marin. Keep the prize. . .

    Reply
  • November 3, 2018 at 4:18 pm
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    What do you have to do to get a Nobel peace prize? Drone a shit ton of people?

    Reply
  • December 10, 2018 at 9:34 pm
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    KNOW THIS….nobel prizes are handed out to a small clique of friends who benefit from each other…..there are more award winning discoveries than you can imagine that are lost every day because the peer review system is a scam

    Reply
  • December 10, 2018 at 9:35 pm
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    Stephen Hawking and Einstien and Newton are just like Justin Bieber Lady Gaga and any other pop star or Johnny Depp…….they ARENT the best or smartest….just in the rich group

    Reply
  • December 28, 2018 at 6:01 pm
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    all three seem to be for medicine.

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  • July 1, 2019 at 4:35 pm
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    Seems nobel prizes are going to experimentalists more than theorists nowadays

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  • November 7, 2019 at 10:28 am
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    I get the science prizes, what I don't get is the peace prizes…. they seem to be pure virtue signaling.

    Reply

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