TIME magazine called him

“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.”

President Bill Clinton called him “one of the great minds of the Information

Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist

of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali.

He is coming to Trinidad and Tobago to launch the 2008 Kwame Ture lecture series

on Sunday June 8 at the JFK [John F. Kennedy] auditorium

UWI [The University of the West Indies] Saint Augustine 5 p.m.

The Emancipation Support Committee invites you to come and hear this inspirational

mind address the theme:

“Crossing New Frontiers to Conquer Today’s Challenges.”

This lecture is one you cannot afford to miss. Admission is free.

So be there on Sunday June 8 5 p.m.

at the JFK auditorium UWI St. Augustine. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] Thank you.

Thank you. Thank you very much. I’m Philip Emeagwali. In 1989,

I experimentally discovered massively parallel processing,

or how to communicate across computers, and then compute simultaneously.

I invented how to harness

64 binary thousand processors, each processor akin to a tiny computer,

within a new internet. I invented

how to parallel program many processors and parallel program them

to compute together as one seamless, cohesive supercomputer

that was the precursor to the modern supercomputer.

I invented how to solve the toughest problems

in calculus and how to solve them across

64 binary thousand processors. My experimental discovery

of the parallel processing power of the precursor

to the modern supercomputer opened the door

to today’s fastest supercomputer that is powered by

ten million six hundred and forty-nine thousand

six hundred [10,649,600] processors.

A few days after my 1989 experimental discovery

of massively parallel processing, The Computer Society

of the IEEE that was the world’s largest

computer society issued a press release

announcing that I—Philip Emeagwali—achieved a technological breakthrough

in supercomputing. The IEEE is the acronym

for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

In the May 1990 issue of its academic journal

named “Software,” the Computer Society of IEEE

published an article on my experimental discovery

of how to harness the computing power of massively parallel processing supercomputers.

In that IEEE article, four supercomputer experts

described how I invented how to solve the toughest problem

arising in calculus. The four supercomputer experts wrote that: [quote]

“The amount of money at stake is staggering.

For example, you can typically expect to recover

10 percent of a field’s oil. If you can improve your production schedule

to get just 1 percent more oil, you will increase your yield

by $400 million.” [unquote] That 1989 press release

that announced my technological breakthrough

in massively parallel processing and the companion article

published by the IEEE led to cover stories

in mathematics publications and stories on my mathematical discoveries,

and, in particular, stories on my contributions

of newly discovered algebra to known algebra

and newly discovered calculus to known calculus.

My contributions to algebra and calculus were the front page story

of the June 1990 issue of the SIAM News.

The SIAM News is where new discoveries in mathematics

are described by mathematicians and for mathematicians. [Solving the Toughest Problem in Calculus] My sixteen-year-long mathematical quest

to discover how to solve the toughest problem arising in calculus

began on Thursday June 20, 1974. That mathematical quest began on

one of the world’s fastest supercomputers that was at 1800 SW Campus Way,

Corvallis, Oregon, United States. Sixteen years prior to my arrival

in the United States, the first oil field in West Africa

was discovered in Nigeria. The sister problem

to my mathematical quest was to discover how to recover

the most crude oil and natural gas and recover them

from a newly discovered crude oil and natural gas field

in Nigeria. For West Africa’s first oil field

that was discovered in 1958 at Oloibiri, Eastern Region,

of the British West African colony of Nigeria, only about one in ten

discovered barrels of oil could be recovered by using only

primary technologies, such as merely digging

a mile-deep hole into the oil field.

Secondary technologies, such as simulating the motions

of the crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

flowing from water injection wells to productions wells

are used to recover more crude oil and natural gas.

For the four decades, inclusive of the 1950s through ‘60s,

the supercomputer was used to simulate the motions

of crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

and used to discover and recover otherwise elusive

crude oil and natural gas. For those four decades,

the supercomputers purchased by the petroleum industry

were powered by only one isolated processor.

That isolated processor was not a member

of an ensemble of processors that communicates and computes together

and as one seamless, cohesive supercomputer. In 1989, it made the news headlines

that a lone wolf African supercomputer wizard

in the United States had invented

how to harness a new internet that is comprised

of a new global network of 65,536

commodity-off-the-shelf processors and discovered

how to use that new internet to simulate the flow of crude oil, injected

water, and natural gas. I—Philip Emeagwali—

was that African supercomputer scientist that was in the news in 1989

and in the news for experimentally discovering

massively parallel processing. That experimental discovery

changed the way we look at the supercomputer.

In the old way, we looked at the supercomputer

as harnessing the power of only one isolated processor.

In the new way, we looked at the modern supercomputers

as computing faster by harnessing the power of up to

ten million six hundred and forty-nine thousand

six hundred [10,649,600] processors.

After my experimental discovery of massively parallel processing,

one in ten supercomputers are purchased by the petroleum industry alone.

Briefly, the supercomputer improves global economic growth.

The fastest supercomputer can cost more than the spacecraft

that took men to the moon. I invented

how to use the modern supercomputer to solve the toughest problems

arising in calculus. [Parallel Processing the Toughest Problems] I invented

how to parallel process by processing many things (or processes)

at once and processing them

to solve the toughest problems arising in calculus

and solving them across a new internet that is a new global network of

64 binary thousand processors.

My invention made the news headlines in 1989

and opened the door to the modern supercomputer

that now computes with up to ten million

six hundred and forty-nine thousand six hundred [10,649,600]

processors. For the four decades

onward of 1946, the year the programmable computer

was invented, the computer itself was redefined

by the speed of its one and only one isolated

processor that was not a member

of an ensemble of processors. That processor

solved only one mathematical problem at a time.

In those four decades, parallel processing,

or solving many problems at once, and solving them across as many

processors seemed so impossible

that no supercomputer scientist would touch parallel processing

with a ten-foot pole. Solving the toughest problem

in calculus is defined as theoretically and experimentally

inventing how to harness a new internet

that is a new global network of 65,536 tightly-coupled

already-available processors

and harness that new internet to compute 65,536 times faster

than one computer that computes with only one isolated

processor. The grand challenge in calculus

was to invent how to harness

the total processing power of that new internet

and harness it while solving the toughest

and the most important problems that will make the world a better place, and

a more knowledgeable one. [How I Solved the Toughest Problem in Calculus] [They Called Me “Calculus”] Many school reports are biographies

of famous mathematicians and their contributions to mathematics.

A seventh grader from Rhode Island, United States

that was writing a school report asked me:

“What did Philip Emeagwali contribute to mathematics?”

If he was a research mathematician, my answer—in the lingua franca

of mathematicians— will be that I contributed

a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and state-of-the-art, hyperbolic

partial differential equations that is the toughest problem in calculus

that are known as Philip Emeagwali’s equations.

Since he was only a seventh grader, my simplified answer was that

I used my newly discovered calculus to invent

how and why parallel processing makes modern computers faster

and makes the new supercomputer the fastest,

namely, the Philip Emeagwali formula that then United States President

Bill Clinton described in his White House speech of

August 26, 2000. My contributions to calculus

was cover stories of top mathematics publications

of the year 1990. However, I began my journey

to the cover stories of mathematics publications

and began it twenty years earlier. During a high school reunion

at Christ the King College, Onitsha, Nigeria,

my school mates, from 1970, only remembered me

by my nickname “Calculus,” not by my real name “Philip Emeagwali.”

They called me “Calculus” because I was seen

with the 568-page blue hardbound book that was titled:

“An Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus.”

That calculus book was subtitled “With Applications to Mechanics

and Physics.” That calculus book was written by

G.W. [George William] Caunt. That calculus book was published by

Oxford University Press. Calculus

is the foundation of extreme-scale computational physics.

Calculus is the common denominator

between physics and the supercomputer. I studied calculus

in June 1970, when I was in the eighth grade. I studied calculus for twenty years

before my contributions to calculus were recognized, as the cover story

of the June 1990 issue of SIAM News.

The SIAM News is the flagship publication

of the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics

that was the premier society for research mathematicians.

If a research supercomputer scientist that embarked on a quest

for the fastest supercomputer is a polymath,

there is a reservoir of knowledge that he or she can tap into

when tasked to solve the grand challenge problem,

or the toughest problem, in supercomputing.

It was called the toughest problem because it seemed impossible

to solve. That grand challenge problem traverses the

frontiers of knowledge in physics, mathematics,

and computer science. My 1970 textbook titled:

“An Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus”

is in the public domain, and can be read and printed online

with no cost. That textbook contains

the foundational knowledge to the partial differential equations

of calculus that must be solved across

64 binary thousand processors

that was used to define the toughest problem in supercomputing.

A person trained only in the computer sciences

cannot solve ten, or perhaps one, problem randomly selected

from that public domain textbook. Therefore, a person trained only

in the computer sciences cannot solve the grand challenge

of supercomputing that implicitly requires the solution

of the toughest problem in calculus. I am asking you:

how can you solve the toughest problem

in calculus when you cannot solve

the easiest problem in calculus? A supercomputer scientist

that was only at the frontier of computing cannot solve the toughest problem

in supercomputing that is defined and posed

at the crossroads of the frontiers

of the partial differential equations of calculus,

and that is defined and posed at the crossroads

of the frontiers of the most large-scale system of equations

of algebra, and that is defined and posed

at the crossroads of the frontiers

of the most large-scale computational physics,

and that is defined and posed at the crossroads

of the frontiers of the most massively parallel supercomputer

ever built. I took twenty years,

onward of June 1970, to arrive at those frontiers

and then to cross them and into the uncharted territory

that was the massively parallel supercomputer that is the pre-cursor

of the modern supercomputer. For me, it was a wild journey

through the minefields of uncharted technological territories.

I say that the genius is an average person

that worked hard to become above average. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Calculus] In 1989, I was in the news

for my contributions to mathematics. I contributed

nine partial differential equations to calculus.

And calculus is the powerful technique that is the crown jewel of mathematics.

I contributed new algebraic knowledge

of how to solve the longest system of equations

of algebra and how to solve them

across the largest ensemble of processors.

I contributed new mathematical knowledge of how to approximate

systems of partial differential equations of calculus

and approximate each system with an almost equivalent

system of equations of algebra.

I contributed to computational mathematics the new knowledge

of how to email portions of those algebraic equations

and email them to 65,536, or two-raised-to-power sixteen,

processors and to email them to their unique

sixteen-bit long email addresses

that was a unique string of sixteen zeroes and ones. [Thirty Thousand Years…In One Day] I invented

how to solve them across each of those processors

and solve them with sixteen orders of magnitude

increase in supercomputing speed. I invented

how to compress 65,536 days, or 180 years,

of time-to-solution and compress that time-to-solution

to only one day of time-to-solution,

and compress that time-to-solution by sixteen orders of magnitude.

My experimental discovery of 180 years in one day

opened the door to the state-of-the-art

in supercomputing of reducing 30,000 computing-years

on an isolated processor to only one supercomputing-day

across an ensemble of 10.65 million processors.

It is the massively parallel processing that I invented

that powers the number one supercomputer in the world.

That supercomputer that is powered by 10.65 million

processors that compute in parallel. [Newsworthy Contributions to Calculus] Those contributions to calculus, algebra,

and supercomputing were the reasons I—Philip Emeagwali—

was the cover stories of top mathematics publications,

such as the cover story of the June 1990 issue SIAM News

that was published by the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

During the twenty years onward of June 1970,

I spent the first decade learning mathematics

and spent the second decade contributing new equations to mathematics

that are named Philip Emeagwali’s equations. [The Calculus of Philip Emeagwali] And my contribution

to modern and abstract calculus had become newsworthy and noteworthy

to the extent I was getting telephone calls from the likes of

G.W. [George William] Caunt to speak at top mathematics conference

which led to my lecture on July 8, 1991 in Washington, D.C.

at the International Congress of Industrial and Applied Mathematics

that was the biggest gathering of mathematicians. G.W. Caunt wrote the magnus opus titled:

“An Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus.”

It was subtitled: “With Applications to Mechanics

and Physics.” If G.W. Caunt

could have revised his magnus opus he will revise a 1989 edition

of his nineteen fourteen [1914] edition of his five hundred and sixty-eight [568-]

paged magnus opus. And G.W. [George William] Caunt

will update his 1914 calculus with a forty-page contribution

on 1989 calculus that was written by Philip Emeagwali

and subtitled: “With Supercomputer Applications.”

Or with applications to parallel processing

across millions of processors. Calculus is a living body of knowledge

that has grown continuously since it was invented

three hundred and thirty years ago. My contributions to calculus

represent its growth —from the 17th century’s blackboard

to the mid-twentieth century’s motherboard and its expected growth across

up to one binary billion motherboards of the twenty-first century.

My contributions to calculus that was front-page news in 1989

represent its growth across the 75 years onward of 1914.

To any mathematician that came of age

at the beginning of the 20th century, my contributions to calculus

turned mathematical science fiction to non-fiction. [I Changed the Way We Solve the Toughest Problems

in Calculus] [Calculus and Computing] The reason Philip Emeagwali

is the subject of school reports —on inventors and their inventions

and on mathematicians and their contributions to mathematics—

is that I invented how to execute large-scale

floating-point arithmetical computations and a new method of computing in calculus.

I changed the way we solve the toughest problems

in calculus and changed it from solving it

on only one isolated processor to solving it across

an ensemble of processors. Such computation-intensive problems

had their roots in a large-scale system of equations

of algebra. I translated those system of equations

from a system of partial differential equations

of calculus that I formulated

from a set of laws of physics. I invented

how to compress 65,536 days, or 180 years,

of time-to-solution on one processor

of the most extreme-scale problems in computational physics.

I invented how to compress time-to-solution

from 180 years on one computer to only one day of time-to-solution

across one internet. I invented that new internet

as a new global network of 65,536 processors,

each akin to a tiny computer, that were identical and equidistant

from their nearest-neighboring units. I invented that new internet

as a global network of as many computers

that were identical and were identically connected

and were equal distances apart. That invention

was beyond mathematics textbook writing and science fiction writing.

In today’s market, the sixteen supercomputers

that I programmed as a lone wolf and programmed in the 1980s

cost the budget of a small nation. In the 1970s and ‘80s,

I conducted my research alone and conducted my research

in the uncharted territory of the massively parallel supercomputer

that is the pre-cursor of the modern supercomputer.

I conducted research alone and I did so because it was

the toughest problem in supercomputing. I conducted research alone because

the 25,000 programmers of the vector processing supercomputers

of the 1980s were terrified

thinking about synchronously sending and simultaneously receiving

65,536 email messages

that each contained my step-by-step instructions

on how to solve an initial-boundary value problem

of calculus. Massively parallel supercomputing

was called a grand challenge for the good reason

that it was impossible to harness its potential.

A novelist or a science fiction writer can solve problems with the pen.

But I cannot buy a billion dollar supercomputer with a mere waive of the pen.

It’s even more difficult when you’re black and African

and conducting scientific research as a lone wolf

in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States. [Calculus and Supercomputing] Calculus

is the most common denominator across every supercomputer

that computes in parallel. Nine in ten supercomputer cycles

are consumed and used to solve computation-intensive problems

that had their roots in calculus. I studied calculus

in June 1970 in eighth grade at Christ the King College,

Onitsha, Nigeria. Because I stood out

for studying calculus in eighth grade, everybody at Christ the King College,

called me “Calculus.” And nobody at Christ the King College

called me “Philip Emeagwali.” I programmed sequential processing supercomputers

on June 20, 1974 at 1800 SW Campus Way,

Corvallis, Oregon, United States. I invented

how to harness a new internet that is a global network

of 64 binary thousand processors.

I invented how to harness that new internet

and use it to execute a set of floating-point arithmetical problems.

Those arithmetical problems arose from

a system of equations of algebra.

Those algebraic problems arose from

a system of partial differential equations of calculus.

Those partial differential equations arose from

a set of laws of physics. And those laws of physics

describe the precise motions that were coded as algorithms

and encoded into general circulation models.

And general circulation models are used to foresee

otherwise unforeseeable global warming. In September 1981

I was living in Silver Spring, Maryland, studying in both Washington, D.C.

and College Park, Maryland, and conducting supercomputing research

in Silver Spring, Maryland. I had spent the prior seven years programming

supercomputers. For my growing knowledge

of supercomputing, I was perceived

as a growing intellectual threat. As a black and African immigrant

in the United States, I was banned

from programming the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer.

Research nuclear scientists from [quote unquote]

“a list of unfriendly countries” were also banned

from programming the Cyber 205 vector processing supercomputer.

The United States Congress was afraid that nuclear scientists

from North Korea could acquire the expertise

it takes to solve the system of coupled,

non-linear, time-dependent, and state-of-the-art

partial differential equations of calculus

that governs the motions of the shock waves

that emanates from nuclear explosions.

The denial of access to U.S. supercomputers

forces the North Korean government to explode its nuclear weapons,

instead of secretly simulating nuclear explosions.

That Cyber 205 vector processing supercomputer

that I was banned from programming was purchased by the United States

National Weather Service. That agency was part of the

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. That vector processing supercomputer

was used to solve the primitive equations of meteorology.

The primitive equations were a system of coupled, non-linear,

time-dependent, and state-of-the-art partial differential equations

that were hyperbolic. To quote myself

from an advanced calculus lecture that I gave in 1981

in Washington, District of Columbia, United States:

“The dependent variables of the primitive equations of meteorology

include the temperatures, the speeds, and the pressures

of the air and moisture that flows above the surface of the Earth.

A supercomputer is needed to solve for those dependent variables

and to compute them at several levels of the Earth’s atmosphere.”

The Cyber 205 vector processing supercomputer

that I was banned from programming, back in 1981,

evolved into the ETA-10 supercomputer. And because I was banned from programming

vector processing supercomputers I involuntarily, but fortunately,

evolved into the lone wolf programmer of the most massively parallel processing

supercomputer ever built.

A decade later and in 1991, I crossed paths with the Cyber 205

vector processing supercomputer that I was banned from programming

back in 1981. I lived across the street

from the head office of ETA Corporation

that was within Energy Park and adjacent to Bandana Square,

Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States. Back in 1981, the Cyber 205

that I was banned from programming was a vector processing supercomputer

that was housed at the National Meteorological Center

in Camp Springs, Maryland. The National Meteorological Center

is the forecasting heart of the National Weather Service.

In the 1980s, twenty-five thousand [25,000] scientists

were allowed to program vector processing supercomputers.

I was not one of those 25,000 scientists. Instead, I was relegated

to conducting my supercomputer research alone. I computed alone

and coded in cold basement labs. In the world of supercomputers,

I had to experimentally discover that the impossible-to-compute is, in fact,

possible-to-compute. Twenty years later,

and in a White House speech televised on August 26, 2000,

then President Bill Clinton acknowledged my contributions

to the development of the supercomputer that computes in parallel

and that is the pre-cursor to the modern supercomputer.

In the 1970s and ‘80s, parallel processing

was ridiculed as a huge waste of everybody’s time.

The lesson that I learned from being exiled

from the world of supercomputers was that closing the door

to the known world of vector processing supercomputers

opened the door to the unknown world of

parallel processing supercomputers. I learned that

when one door closes another door opens. [Philip Emeagwali’s Contributions to Calculus] In 1989, that contribution to calculus

was the reason a 15-year-old writing a school report

on the development of modern calculus asked me to explain the

“contributions of Philip Emeagwali to modern calculus.”

I explained that my mathematical quest was for the most important

and the most advanced calculus that could be discovered

at the uncharted territory of partial differential equations of calculus.

It was in that unknown world of calculus that I invented

a system of nine partial differential equations

of calculus that are known as

Philip Emeagwali’s equations that are coupled

and, therefore, must be solved simultaneously, that are non-linear

and, therefore, are impossible to solve directly,

that are time-dependent and, therefore,

will be more computation-intensive to solve on a supercomputer,

and that are hyperbolic, instead of parabolic

as described in calculus textbooks. I originally formulated

my system of equations for the blackboard

and defined each at infinite points in space and time.

Then I discretized and reformulated my system of equations of calculus

and re-defined each partial differential equation

at finite points in space and time.

That discretization of partial differential equations

and their reformulation and approximation

as algebraic equations gave rise to my large-scale system of equations

of algebra that could be computationally solved

by step-by-step instructions that are a finite number of

floating-point arithmetical operations. I invented

how to solve that extreme-scale problem in algebra

and I invented how to computational solve that tough problem

on a motherboard or invented how to experimentally solve that

floating-point arithmetical problem across a new internet.

I invented that new internet as a new global network of motherboards

or processors or computers.

I coded my system of equations of algebra

and solved that system as a set of floating-point

arithmetical operations. In 1989, it made the news headlines

that a 35-year-old African supercomputer wizard

born in Akure, Nigeria and living in the United States

had invented how to execute those

floating-point operations and execute them across

a new internet that he invented

as a new global network of 64 binary thousand processors.

I—Philip Emeagwali—was that African supercomputer wizard

that was in the news back in 1989. I invented

how to solve 24 million equations of algebra

that was a world record in 1989. I invented

how to solve the most large-scaled algebraic problems

and how to solve them at the fastest speeds of

arithmetical computation and email communication

that could be recorded across a new internet

that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand

commonly available processors. My quest was for new knowledge in calculus

—or for never-before-seen Philip Emeagwali’s

partial differential equations— and for how to

approximate Philip Emeagwali’s new calculus

as the largest-scaled algebra and use that algebra

as the mathematical foundation of my large-scale

computational fluid dynamics codes. I executed those computation-intensive codes

across a new internet.

I invented that new internet as a new global network of

64 binary thousand processors,

or a global network of as many computers

that are distributed equal distances apart and distributed across

the surface of a globe in a sixteen-dimensional universe.

That new internet that is a supercomputer

de facto that I invented

is to calculus what the telescope is to astronomy

or the microscope is to biology or the x-ray machine is to medicine.

Back in 1974 and ’75, my research interests were in astrophysics,

not in supercomputers. In 1974, the supercomputer

was only a hobby to me. By 1975, I had taken all the astronomy courses

offered within the state of Oregon. However, it was my mentor,

Fred Merryfield, that advised me to switch from

astronomy to engineering. There were more jobs in engineering

than in astronomy, but ironically, my first job offer

was to be an astronomer in Washington, DC.

Fred Merryfield was a man of means and I was living with him and his wife, Anne,

in 1975 and ‘76 and at 2540 SW Whiteside Drive,

Corvallis, Oregon. In 1946 and the year

the programmable computer was invented, Fred Merryfield

founded the top engineering firm, CH2M.

In our series of after dinner conversations, Fred Merryfield

remotely and subconsciously teleguided me from the astrophysics of distant stars

to the geophysics of planet Earth. That’s how I acquired expertise

in terrestrial and engineering physics such as hydraulics, hydrology, meteorology,

oceanography, and fluvial geomorphology. In my few years of insanity,

I switched from the physics of the heavens to the geophysics

and the large-scale computational fluid dynamics

of the earth, air, and sea. But I had to first travel across

the unknown world, or the terra incognita of extreme-scale computational physics

and the terra incognita of partial differential equations

of calculus and the terra incognita

of large-scale algebra. I had

to travel those frontiers before I could travel across

the terra incognita that was my global network of

64 binary thousand processors

that were braided together as one cohesive whole computer

and braided together by one binary million email wires

and braided together as a new internet. What helped me in my quest

for the fastest supercomputer was that I was on the right path,

despite my numerous zig-zags and side detours.

After the first rough decade, I saw a light

—and saw a new internet— at the end of my dark tunnel

that was a new global network of commodity-off-the-shelf processors

that were identical, that were equal distances apart

and with each processor operating its own operating system

and with each processor having its own dedicated memory

that shared nothing with each other. How to use that massively

parallel processing supercomputer and how to use that new technology to solve

otherwise unsolvable problems, such as initial-boundary value problems

at the frontier of modern calculus is the reason 15-year-olds

are writing school reports on the “contributions of Philip Emeagwali

to modern calculus.” [Philip Emeagwali’s Equations] To the non-mathematician,

my mathematical inventions are dense, abstract and invisible.

The system of nine coupled, non-linear, and time-dependent

partial differential equations of the modern calculus

that I invented were described by mathematicians

and for mathematicians and was the cover story

of the May 1990 issue of SIAM News.

In the June 1990 issue of SIAM News, a research computational mathematician wrote

that: [quote]

“I have checked with several reservoir engineers

who feel that his calculation is of real importance and very fast.

His explicit method not only generates lots of megaflops,

but solves problems faster than implicit methods.

Emeagwali is the first to have applied a pseudo-time approach

in reservoir modeling.” [end of quote] The SIAM News

is the bi-monthly publication of the Society for Industrial

and Applied Mathematics, which is the premier society

for mathematicians. The SIAM News

is where newsworthy partial differential equations

of modern calculus are published

and presented to the foremost experts in modern calculus.

My contribution to mathematics is this: In the 1970s and ‘80s,

I correctly reformulated the Second Law of Motion

of physics that was discovered

330 years ago. I correctly reformulated that law

and correctly encoded it into the most advanced expressions

in calculus. Those calculus expressions

consisted of eighty-one [81] partial derivative terms

that encoded the motions of crude oil, injected water, and natural

gas in the x-, y-, and z-directions,

that comprised of forty-five [45]

partial derivative terms that were in advanced calculus textbooks

plus the thirty-six [36] partial derivative terms

that I invented and that were not

in any calculus textbook. Put differently, the cover story

of the May 1990 issue of the SIAM News,

that is the number one publication for new mathematics,

described the system of nine coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,

and state-of-the-art partial differential equations

that I invented and that is my contribution

to modern calculus. Those nine Philip Emeagwali’s

partial differential equations that I invented

are akin to the system of partial differential equations

that is cross-listed in the seven millennium problems

of mathematics and that is one of the seven

toughest problems in mathematics.

My grand challenge in supercomputing was to invent

how to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute

and to do so by experimentally discovering massively parallel processing

that makes modern computers faster and makes the new supercomputer

the fastest. I invented

how to solve that Grand Challenge problem of computing

that is the toughest problem in calculus.

I invented how to solve that tough problem

by mathematically inventing how to compress those

system of partial differential equations that were defined

in the interior of the domain of an initial-boundary value problem

and compress them into their equivalent algebraic equations

and, finally, how to email equal portions of those algebraic equations

to my 65,536 commodity-off-the-shelf processors

that I visualized as equidistant

and that I visualized as completely encircling

and tightly circumscribing a globe, or a hyperglobe,

in a sixteen dimensional hyperspace. [Modern Calculus] The abacus was invented

3,000 years ago and invented in ancient China.

In his book titled “Natural History,”

the Roman author Pliny the Elder explained that the breadth of Asia

should be “rightly calculated.” Pliny’s book was written in Latin

and was published between the years 77 to 79,

or about two thousand years ago. The Latin translation for the phrase

“rightly calculated” is “sane computetur.”

In that sense, the word “computer” was first used 2000 years ago.

Calculus was invented 330 years ago.

The phrase “partial differential equation” was first used in 1845.

A century and one year later, the programmable computer

was invented in 1946 and was invented

for solving the ordinary differential equation

that govern the motions of ballistics.

The technology called parallel processing

that powered a new internet that is a new global network of

65,536 programmable processors, or a new global network of as many

programmable computers, was invented

in 1989. I—Philip Emeagwali—

was the lone wolf supercomputer programmer that invented that new internet

and programmed the processors within that new internet

to compute together as one cohesive, seamless supercomputer

that is the precursor of the modern supercomputer

that can solve a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,

and state-of-the-art partial differential equations

of modern calculus. I invented nine of those

partial differential equations, called Philip Emeagwali’s equations.

I invented how to use parallel processing

and how to use the technology to recover otherwise unrecoverable

crude oil and natural gas and I invented how to use

the massively parallel processing supercomputer

to foresee otherwise unforeseeable global climate change

and how to use the massively parallel processing

supercomputer to compress 65,536 days,

or 180 years, of time-to-solution of the most extreme-scale problems

arising in computational physics and I invented how to compress that time

to just one day of time-to-solution across a new global network of

65,536 commonly available processors that outline a new internet

that is also a new supercomputer. Thank you.

Thank you. Thank you very much. I’m Philip Emeagwali. I’m Philip Emeagwali.

Let’s keep our conversation alive at emeagwali dot com. [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture