>>All right, Chapter five is applying the

Reynolds transport theorem, the three most important equations in fluid mechanics. We’ve

done already now continuity. OK, so we’ve done the continuity equation, we did a couple

of JAVA problems in class and that’s the first part of Chapter five Homework. Now we’re going

to do momentum and then we’re going to end up next week probably Wednesday next week,

start at the base of energy equations. So conservation of mass then momentum and then

you have energy equations. All right, in every one of those three equations we go back to

Reynolds transport theorem in Chapter four and we start there and we derive the equation

from the Reynolds transport theorem. OK. So we go back, this is the Reynolds transport

theorem from the last part of Chapter four. That left hand side is the system the right

hand side is the control volume control service. Initially in Chapter five we left capital

B, be the mass. And that led to the conservation of mass equation or continuity equation. Now

we’re going to let capital B be momentum. And momentum is mass times velocity. And little

b then– little b of course is momentum divided by that mass, so little b is capital B divided

by the mass. So that’s mV divided by the mass V. OK, so now we have what little b is and

we put little b in that equation. OK, first if all we know from the system analysis that

the change in momentum of the system is equal to the sum of all the forces acting on that

system, of course. So the left hand side, this is a summation of forces that act on

that system. So dV dT, let’s make that the mass times the velocity. So this is the rate

of change of momentum with respect to time or the system is equal to the summation of

all the courses that act on that system, the system flow, OK? So the first step is where

we see dV dT system, we replace that with the summation of the forces, [inaudible] is

equal to– now, wherever you see a little b put the velocity V. And then we have across

the control surface row pV(V.m)dA. Again, if uniform velocity profile–

This thing simplifies to summation over the

control surface of row V and this is our V dot A.

And say these forces are both body forces

and its weight and we call surface forces. If a pressure acts on a surface, that’s a

surface force. I’m going to write down one more time down here just to keep the format

we use today. I think I’ll put it over here so you can save it. Now that’s the general

form, the vector form. We’ll normally deal with [inaudible] form of that, so we’ll just

show you one. In the x direction we have the summation of the forces in the x direction

and this would be the velocity in the x direction. Plus sum over the control surface, the velocity

in the x direction, V dot A. And it will be sooner of course, to the y and the z directions.

OK. So, that’s the second important equation in Chapter five, conservation of mass was

the first one or the continuity equation. This is the second one, momentum. Now, we’d

go ahead and look at our simple example of that. Let’s put that over here I think it’s

the best place to put it [inaudible]. OK, let’s see. This is a pipe. Let’s just make

it like this. Ans this is pipe goes on, we don’t know, it goes on like that. And we’re

going to fill the x and y direction. The fluid is leaving here, it’s exiting to the atmosphere,

but the pressure at this point in the pipe would be P. Its other pressure, it’s a pipe

compressor. Water comes out through a nozzle. This could be a nozzle in a pipe. This is

a nozzle. What’s the purpose of a nozzle? The purpose of a nozzle is to accelerate the

flow to a higher velocity. OK. So, let’s see what else to find here. Well, I’m just going

to write down the equations that we’re going to use for this. Normally, we want to put

a location on them, where is point 1, point 2? OK, point 1, point 2, just outside the

nozzle, outside. Why? Well, [inaudible]. I know the pressure there. It’s zero atmosphere.

OK. Point 1 and point 2, this is P1, that’s P x zero there. I’m going to call this area

A1 and this area I’ll call A2. All right, let’s take first of

all continuity. Now we’re going to make some

assumptions. First assumption, steady flow, nothing is bearing more time. So, study for

who makes the, the conservation mass, the massh where it becomes sample on match 1 or

2. OK, there’s no storage, because nothing changes with time. Here is storage. If nothing

change with time, then that term goes to zero, OK. No matter where there’s mass, momentum

or energy, d dt of A10 is zero. That means a mass fluid that comes in equal to mass over

rate to go down, OK. Now we’re going to say incompressible. Row is constant, row 1 equal

row 2. And what’s m dot? m dot equal row AB, so the row is canceled out, we have A1 B1

equal A2 V2. Obviously the areas are not the same here. So if you know V1 or let’s say

you know V1 and you want to find V2, then V2 equal A1 over A2, V1. Those are all from

conservation of mass. That means since A1 is bigger than A2, obviously the velocity

at 2 is going to be bigger than the velocity at 1, but the volume metric flow rate at 2

is the same as the volume metric flow rate at 2 is the same as the volume metric flow

rate at 1 and the mass flow rate at 1 equal mass flow rate at 1. OK, so those are the

three places you got, one is the mass fluid rate, one is the volume fluid rate and flow

rate and one is the velocity. OK, now, let’s go over to Bernoulli. Bernoulli equation from

where to where? one and two obviously, OK, they had to form P1 over gamma V1 squared

over 2g and z1. Make assumption now. If I use that equation, number one is inviscid

which means no discussing, neglect discussing. Inviscid means neglect, viscosity or viscus

effects. Number two, if you use Bernoulli’s it has to be along a straight line. OK, so

there are our four assumptions, there is Berenoulli, P2 is zero, OK, got it. z1 equals z2, OK.

There is Bernoulli’s. P1 over gamma V1 squared over 2g equal V2 squared over 2g. If you want

you can combine these two guys together because here the V2 in terms of V1 right there, so

I could put this guy in here for V2, OK, so I’ll go ahead and do that. V1 over gamma plus

V1 squared over 2g equal– OK, square V2 there it is. A1 over A2 squared times v1 squared

divided by 2g. OK P1 over gamma is equal to V1 squared over 2g quantity A1 over A2 squared

minus one. That’s combining continuity along with Bernoulli’s. P1 is a high pressured of

course UPS>>Were we asked to find P1?>>No– OK, thank you. You’ll be given one

of those two. Either I tell you the flow, right its 50 galloons per minute, you can

find V1 then. All right, so the pressure here is 55 PSIA– PSIG, but you got to be giving

one.>>Sorry, for this problem, what are we asked?>>You’re asking– listen to me up here in

the board that’s all. No, I’m just going over what kind of equation you could use in a problem

like and I– when I’m done typically what you’re ask part– I’m not going to solve–

you’d be given P1 and ask for the mass flow rate down there. You could be given the 500

flow rate and ask for P1.>>All right.>>But I’m not asking for anything, just I’m

showing you what equations are in your library to use? Because on the exam you got a library,

it is part of in your head and part on your paper sheet. You got to figure out what in

your library you can use to solve that problem. So you better start writing stuff down. If

you don’t know where you’re going then start writing stuff down look at for awhile. That’s

the key. If you don’t know where you’re going, start writing down Bernoulli’s, momentum and

see if there’s– something jumps out of it on the exam. Some people say, “You’re going

to get stressed you don’t think straight?” Well, I’ll tell you. The way you think straight

is start pushing down on paper and looking at it. You know, that takes some stress off

your mined, so yeah that’s good to do. I know it takes a thing or two, but if it saves you

that’s good then. You know, if it save you that’s good. OK, that’s these two guys. Now

we can tackle this guy over here. May be I’m going to say, you know what? I want to know

what force it takes to hold this thing in place, OK. So if not I’m going to do is find

momentum. There’s no y there’s no z, I’m going to do x momentum. Other put this belong so

I’ll put it up here. I’ll put it right here. Yup that’s fine. You won’t need him. As a

matter of fact, they’re just right there. All right, I’m going to draw up this picture

now. That’s P1. I’m going to assume a direction on that, I probably do. I’ll just assume that

the forces in the plus x direction since I don’t know any different. Now let’s put it–

make it easy for us. Let’s say, what’s the force required to hold this thing in place,

what’s the force required to hold this thing in place. I’m going to assume it’s pulling

backwards. If I’m wrong, guess what statics I’ll get a minus sign. If I’m right F of x

will be positive. So, if you don’t know, you guess. It’ll come out the [inaudible] when

you’re done. OK, now, what’s this diagram here? This is the left hand side. All the

forces that act on what? The control surface. Where is the control surface? Well, here is

the control volume. Control surface, control volume and there it is. We also transport

there, momentum. How about at this point here? Well, you know what P atmosphere is, it’s

zero. When somebody says P atmosphere that means zero gauge, so you don’t show any pressure

here, there it is. By the way that’s another force theory. You have to multiply that pressure

by an area, so the force would be P1A1. Which direction? Here’s the direction. Always, always

draw your arrow directions when you start this guy or you’re going to get really messed

up. You’re going to use that equation there without doing this is just like statics or

dynamics you’re going to do messed up, so draw your directions. OK, P1A1 OK, first term

which way? To the right, plus P1A1, OK. I’m assuming we have to hold this in place so

we’re pointing that that way, minus Fx equal. OK, now we do what it says there. What it

says there is go around the control surface, go around the control surface. Wherever will

it interest our leads the control line, there’s going to be a contribution from this term,

so go around the control surface until you reach a point where flow crosses all start

lower left hand point right there, I go up ward, Oh, yeah there’s a velocity here V1. [ Inaudible Question ] Yeah V1. OK, do what it says. Take the [inaudible]

there times the velocity in the x direction. Row times– plus V1, V1 is a plus x direction

there. OK, now, find V dot A there. Oh, the vectors are already in angle between them

is cosine of zero, 1, OK? So its 1, the sign is 1. And magnitude of the velocity V1, magnitude

of the area, A1 and so it’s going to be area vector 1, velocity vector, cosine of 180 minus

1. OK and minus 1, OK, and A1V1. All right, keep going around the control surface until

you find a place where fluid enters release. No, no, no fluid entering, no fluid leaving,

no, no stop. Yup, yup, yup, leaving, leaving. OK, row times the velocity in the x direction

there, row. Which way is velocity going? Positive, positive, row V2 times B dot A. Area got here

always finds outward from the control service. Cosine zero, OK, plus 1, plus 1, number of

fluid crosses the surface on the bottom, on the bottom no, no, no, no. OK. Now, just so

you know there are two sines in this summation here, two sines and you’d better do your book

keeping correctly. The velocity in the x direction can be positive or negative. At location one

it was positive V1, F location two it was positive V2. Now I come to second sine, V

dot A, it can be positive or negative, it was positive at the exit and negative at the

in line. So you got to always want to check, two sines when we tackle that term. That’s

where you do your book keeping in correctly and

you get the wrong answer. OK, now if you want

to simplify it, yeah, go ahead. A1V1, A1V1 is Q1 equal Q2. How come? Conservation of

mass. Row times A1V1 equal. Row2 A2V2, how come? Conservations of mass. Row– this then,

this m dot, OK, that’s m dot. So we have m dot, m– this guys– no, these three terms

are m dot. If you want to just include down the [inaudible] taken this one, that’s m dot,

OK, and then what’s the positive one? V2. And what’s the sign? V1. And what’s that equal

to? P1A1 minus Fx. OK. Now, give P1. OK, give P1. Find m dot. Find the V2. Find the course

required in the x direction to hold that fitting in place. I just picked those three. I can

say find the flow rate Q2, find V1, find Fx, OK. Let’s try to find Fx. Trying to find Fx,

OK, Fx. Do I know? If not, not yet. Do I know P1? Not yet. V1V2, that’s where we start from,

given P1, let’s see P1, P1, P1, there’s P1. I know A1A2 that’s given. Guess what I find.

You got it, V1. Once I know V1 can I find the V2? Yup, you got it. Once I know V2 can

I find m dot? Of course I can. So I’m given P1– I’m given P1 I’m sorry, given P1, given

A1, found m dot, found the velocities. There you go. Solve for Fx. If you get confused

write all those equations down and stare at them a lot maybe something will pop out at

you, hopefully it will. But they’re all in together. OK. Now, let’s take a look at some

homework, yeah, question, I’m sorry. [ Inaudible Question ] Yeah, I’ll put over here. Here is the control

volume, here is the control surface, no matter where you are on this control volume, the

A vector always points out normal by definition, by definition. That’s the way we carry thing,

it always points out. It’s just like this, you know, does it matter inner point now but

make up your choice, you know, some guy says, “I like that.” This guy says, “Oh, I hate

that. I’m always off the wall.” I always call that positive, you too? It’s OK I guess, but

I don’t. And most of we’re all don’t. But is this guy wrong? Of course he’s not. But

most people do it this way. That’s just the way we do it that’s the convention, convention

very effect points outward, normal from control service. OK. Homework over here. Yeah, I’ve

got over around here right. Oh this is?>>Yeah>>OK.>>That’s the last one.>>Just this one? OK. If you didn’t give it

that’s a question, OK. All right, let’s go over some– we’ll come back to this and we’ve

done all next class time going through more difficult examples. This was, of course, easy

one. But I want to point out these guys are all related. We did Bernoulli’s in Chapter

three. We did conservation of mass and continuity in Chapter five. We did momentum in Chapter

five. And most problem you get, this is especially true if they make prime of 10. You have to

figure out which one is unique if the answer is you want, and that’s why you want to have

those in your library, ready to use and to look at. OK let’s take a look at this. I pointed

some thing out here at the moment I saw, plus we’ll go over some problems. This is similar

to a problem that you were assigned, which was problem 350. OK, so I’m going to draw

a picture of cylinder but not the same thing. This is a siphon problem. Here is a siphon

comes out of this reservoir, goes up over here, goes down, and like this. And let me

just check it here and see it best of my– I don’t think that that is 350, it was another

one. Oh there is it, 359. I’m not going to draw I think it stops there. OK. So there

is– I take it back. I’m do it my way, because there’s– so here’s a way but I’m not his

way. I think this is better. These guys are in the same line here. Not that it matters,

I mean, it’s only a structure. Here’s a fixed wall. The flow comes out against the wall.

It’s a siphon problem. [ Inaudible Remark ] This distance is H, capital H. This distance

is little h. OK now. So, here’s my homework. I don’t know I’m going to make something [inaudible].

I’ll say it’s problem 459. OK. And then you write it down. OK now of course that’s bad

because when you start there, if there’s something wrong with your work, and I’ m trying to find

out what’s wrong with your work I’ll say, “Where? Point 4. As a matter of fact, you

know what? I don’t even see a picture.” Oh yeah that’s bad. If you would have maximized

your points on exam you better tell the instructor, and that’s me, where these guys are. If you

have a small error somewhere just a small, you put g 32.2 [inaudible] that’s not major.

But if I can’t find that error, It wasn’t my choice, take off a lot of points, I can’t

find it. So, here’s the lesson. First of all these guys all require sketches, and on exam

especially. On exam, how do you clear in your mind? You draw off a sketch. Most Engineers

love to see a sketch. They hate to see spreadsheet. Spreadsheets are boring, sketches are interesting.

Go to a meeting of SAE or ASME Detroit or Atlanta, they have a nice lunch there at the

hotel then go into a room. The guy turns the lights down on the room. He’s got a 20-minute

talk. Throw a spreadsheet out. Why is everybody yawning and snoring at the back row over there

somewhere? Because they ate a big lunch and spreadsheets e don’t excite enough. If you’re

a Math major I love them, but I mean, if you’re a Math major then maybe they excite you. But

I tell you what, you put a multi color graph up there, everybody says, “What’s that suppose

to tell you? What’s he trying to tell me by that graph?” Oh it gets your interest, it

keeps people awake. See we engineers are graphic type people too. We love number too but we’re

not Math majors. So sketches get our interest and they also guide us to the right solution,

OK. So number one is, draw a sketch, OK? Number two, OK I drew the sketch there it is, and

there’s the first equation grouped up. And there’s error– the answer is wrong on one

of the exam, I say oh, what this guy do wrong? And I’ll try to find it the best of my ability.

It it’s not clear to me, I said, “You know what? You don’t make any sense. I can’t give

you part of credit, you don’t deserve it.” Well, you know why, because I’m trying to

find point 4 over here. Is point 4 at the bottom, at the entrance, at the top, at the

exit, at the wall? I’m not going to guess, that’s not my job. So you got to help me,

plus the fact that just the way we engineers are. If we’re not precise, we’re in the wrong

major. So what you do is you put numbers on that guide. OK, so first of all we draw the

picture then you put the numbers on there and don’t do it this way and say, “You know

what? The water strikes the wall right here, I’m going to call that 1 and I’m going to

call that 2.” Why in the world would you do that? Maybe you read the foot backwards from

the back page to the front pages. Maybe, I don’t know. But hey, you know what? Numbering

in a sequence from where there’s no start to where the flow is up. That’s the logical

sequence, the logical sequence. Oh you don’t get the right answer to them, it’s not nonsensical.

It shows something is missing, OK? So I’m going to number the points as you hope logic

prevails and let’s see, we can start with number one where the flow initiates and of

course why do you choose that point? Because you know other pressure there is they’re all

the [inaudible] and you can typically find, you know, elevation there. And the next logical

point maybe where the stuff comes out the pipe, of course that’s a logical point, this

is point 2. And the third logical point is where it hits the fixed wall because you may

be ask for the stagnation pressure at the wall. Yeah, you have been that’s problem–

where it was, 359. OK, so we have three of those guys now they’re in the right sequence,

they’re numbered and there was a sketch. OK, you’re on the right track. That’s the good

news. OK. Now let’s go ahead and take the second point of that. Let’s see. I think you

were asked to find the flow rate, and the dimension pressure, right? Yeah. All right

flow rate. I told you what this is Bernoulli’s, OK Chapter 3. I told you pressure, velocity,

you know, any elevation, we know that. At the exit too, pressure, yeah, it’s just outside

the exit. Atmosphere, zero, elevation z, yeah, we typically know it. This is given to you

typically. Yes we do. What’s the only unknown in the equation? The velocity at two, once

you got the velocity of two, [inaudible] you want q2, take V2 times a2. You want the mass

flow rate take row a2, b2, you got– so you got b, cube m dot. What’s the flow rate [inaudible]?

q, the same q. Continuity, [inaudible]. m dot, same m dot as m dot 2. Why? Continuity,

steady state. OK. I think that’s all on that one, any question on that? So, just help yourself,

and especially when you’re getting ready for the final. If you got your homework done on

this, I guarantee you you’ll save tons of time. Otherwise you got to go back to that

book, look at the picture, figure out where points 1 and points 2 were you say, “Oh I

didn’t put them on there for the homework.” Well, you got it right there by studying for

the final, yeah. Everybody is busy the last week, projects are due, three finals one Monday,

two Tuesday, the last of the weeks nothing. So you got to find a way to budget your time

efficiently and study efficiently that’s the way you do it. OK. Let’s say this diagram–

I might come back to them. All right, let’s look at problem 350, this is

the problem. OK, we have– [ Inaudible Remark ] So reservoir here. OK let’s see. The water

is right here, Oh it was a bucket. We know this is 4 feet. This is 4 feet about here.

And we know that there’s a nozzle up here where the water comes out at 10 feet or second,

and we know that’s 5. OK. And let’s see what else. Oh this distance here, we got SH. I

guess we didn’t know H. Let me– yup there it is. Yup find it, yup H of the– I thinks

its [inaudible] or something. It’s got a gamma of 50, so light on maybe. OK. You ask assumed

it’s incompressible. Its steady state, it’s impressive. Will you make the assumptions

then you can like burn this. OK. From point 1 to point 2 and then you have point 1 point

two somewhere. OK. I choose to put point 1 here and I choose the put point 2 where it

exits right here. OK. P1 over gamma, V1 squared over 2g, z1, P2, V2, z2. At the exit, pressure

atmosphere, v2 zero, z2 5, z1 4, v1 zero. 5h hold, right there 10 squared. Divided by

2g, z2 5. P1, is the oil moving? Nope. Chapter two, fluid status, yes, I go down how far

down? Capital H. What is the fluid? Oil, gamma oil, H down plus, plus. Do I owe gamma a lot?

Sure it goes 50. That’s the way Joe did. Marry did it this way. Marry said, you know, let

me bring it fast. Professor Fiddle [assumed spelling] said you can replace it along that

equivalent layer of water and treat the whole thing is water. Now it can’t be moving to

do that, it’s got to be fluid statics. Is the oil moving? No. So we can do it. OK. So

now we do it this way. And now it’s all water, comes out there. The height we’re going to

call the height there from here to here, OK. I’m going to show you that right here what

that is. Its 4, OK, plus and don’t forget and we get the oil out we’re going to place

it by the equivalent layer of water. So we take the ratio gamma oil over gamma water

times H. OK there it is. This guy up here, he’s still 5 of course. OK. And where is point

1 now? At the top of the water. Where is point 2? Just outside the jet. P1 over gamma, v1,

z1, p2, v2, z2, pre-jet it to pressure zero atmosphere gone, z2 still 5, v2 I know it’s

10, v1 zero, p1 oh-uh, it wasn’t zero or not on the pre-surface of water. Here comes z1,

this it by way z1, 4 plus gamma oil or gamma water H, equal 10 squared over 2g plus 5,

H is equal to 3.19 feet. It gives the same answer. Some people worked it one way, some

worked the other way. But some people weren’t very good at what they were saying, you know,

sometimes some people look over, put point 1 up there, don’t put point 1 there. No, no.

Let’s not go there. Some people when they solved it this way over here, the equivalent

amount of water they still– they didn’t label that point 1. They still show point 1 over

here. They shoot point 1 with that equation. Oh, that’s not good, that’s not good. If you’re

going to do it that way, you better draw– and my lesson is, you better draw a new picture

or I’m going to get maybe confused reading homework and exams. You better help while

you can. You draw in with picture. If you like go this way, fine you don’t need no pictures.

You want to try and put this equation right here with that picture, Oh no, I say point

1 is up– is here, that’s not right. Several people put point 1 at the wrong location for

homework. Just be careful. I’m just warning, be careful. These are little things that when

you add the points you go from 91 to 78 and, I screwed up, but yeah I know. Just be careful.

Try and be a little more cautious. Draw another picture. OK, let’s look at another one.>>I have a question.>>Sure.>>How did you switch from the first picture

p1 over [inaudible]?>>Here?>>Yes. He wanted to know what it look on

the left side equation.>>Here?>>Yeah, just a little bit more over.>>There?>>There you go. Yeah, how do you turn that

into– is that alpha or I forget what it’s called.>>Gamma?>>Gamma. Gamma dot time–>>OK. Yeah. This is a good point, than you.

Here’s the deal. You got to be real careful, there’s two gammas there. Here’s the deal.

Bernoulli is applied to a fluid in motion. Look at that picture. Tell what’s moving,

oil or water?>>Water.>>Thank you. That’s how you tell what goes

in. But there’s a choice that’s good.>>Given how you draw from that step to the

next one underneath it.>>Oh, oh, oh, oh, OK, yes. If the pressure

here is zero, what’s the pressure right where my finger tip is, Chapter 2? Or down in a

static fluid, gamma delta z, what’s delta z? What’s the right gamma? Gamma on times

age.>>But for your equation I think you only

throw gamma H but you need hat over gamma W–>>Oh, oh, oh, oh yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.

Thanks yes there you go. You got it right from the start.>>m plus 4.>>OK. Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, right?

Bla-bla-bla-bla-bla, yeah. By 4 yeah I skipped a step here didn’t I? Yeah. We’re going to

go there anything I put in. This right here is a pressured here, is equal to gamma oil

times H plus the pressure up here zero, OK. So p1 is gamma oil times H, divided by gamma

water. Is that right?>>And then plus 4.>>Plus 4 yeah. I’m glad you came for us today.

It’s funny the answer didn’t change though. Because it’s right here the spotlight is there.

Good I have your company. OK, good, thank you because we need to cath those things in

class, sometimes I move a little fast I’m like jump around. OK. Now let’s continue on.

I just mention this to you so you know. If you do something like that on exam that I

jot the board, I’m not going to penalize you, as long as I see that 4 right here, I know

when you rush sometimes, you know, you miss something so I’m not going to– maybe half

a point which is nothing, you know. But, you know, I’m not going to offend you. Just–

If it’s written down somewhere like that, of if you write down z1 equal 4, but then

don’t put it here. I’m not going to say, not minus 10 points. No, that’s not right, because

you saw, you just in a rush you didn’t put it down or so. Try and be careful of that.

I understand if you do miss some things like that, as long as the equation written down

and the number somewhere with that symbol, I’m OK with that. OK. Now listen. I’m going

to erase the system, I might go back here and do this problem one more– a little differently

than you are asked in homework. Now, you see what we’re getting into in here too is these

problems this one here for instance involves Chapter three and Chapter two, OK. So the

further we get along in the course, the more chapters you found may be covered. As I mentioned

that one problem we just hand with momentum and conservation of mass and Bernoulli’s.

All right. Point 2, the pressure is zero just outside there. We follow velocity that way

by Bernoulli’s. I think maybe my capital H is not. I’m going to check my capital H on

this one on my notes. I think I have a funny capital H differently. OK well I just go ahead

and find that later. Let’s see. I think that’s OK. What if I ask you to– there is point

1. What if I ask you to find the pressure F point A, pressure point A. This weren’t

going to stop like this whatever you’re viewing for the second midterm, because a lot of stuff

involves earlier chapters, earlier chapters. I just mentioned over here with the oil. Is

the water moving there? That would be no. Is it too much status? Yes. Is it Chapter

two? Yes. How I’m going to change in pressure? Gamma times the difference in depth. OK. Pa

equal P1 plus gamma, I’m going to call gamma. Gamma times a distance H. I’m going to change

that because I think its better this way with a capital H up there. I might need to add

more this later, but I’ll see. OK. I’ve got the pressure at gamma at H. Now let’s go from

A to– Let’s go to B, A to B. OK. Here we go now. Is the fluid moving up B? Oh yes it

is, it’s going through a pipe? Yes it is. Can I use force static? No I can’t. Can I

use Bernoulli’s? Yeah, as long as I assume what’s that again? incompressible steady state

in this the longest streamline. Where’s my streamline? I don’t know but I’ll pretend

I know. I think it goes from here up to there. Of course I don’t know that, but I’m– that’s

my assumption. Maybe it does, it’s OK. PA, Va squared, zA, PB, Vb squared, 2g plus, zA.

That A it I told you before from first going from 1 to A, the velocity A is zero. I’m going

to call the bottom of the tank. [ Inaudible Remark ] I’m sorry? Oh, yeah that makes sense though.

They go to the bottom of the tank. I call it my depth. OK, so A is zero. Point A for

statics right there, there is right there. There, there, there. P1 plus gamma H. I typically

know that distance ZB. I know that distance ZB. It’s known. What don’t I know? Well, I

don’t know, maybe I don’t know PB. I don’t know PB. OK. I’m going to write it from B

to point 2. This is Bernoulli’s A to B. This is B to 2 Go back to B. OK that’s– no those

are zero. Let them go. But this guy right here we know it’s exhausting to– it’s exiting

to atmosphere so P2 is zero. We typically know ZA and– ZB and Z2 OK. Those three terms

right there, don-don-don, those three terms right there. Those three terms are the same.

OK. Let’s see what ZP, OK, H Z1 OK let’s go from– B2 we did, let’s go from 1 to 2 directly

and don’t stop at the ending, don’t stop at the ending. Go from 1 to 2 directly. OK. OK,

we know what this guy. Technically, we know this guy is zero. This guy is zero. So, V2

squared over 2G is equal to Z1 minus Z2 delta Z. So, V2 equals square root of 2G delta Z.

Could I get V2 from this guy here? We don’t know that. Do I know FV? No V F V. Conservation

mass, what comes in there must go up there if it’s steady state. OK, steady state it

is. And B equal m dot 2. Isn’t it compressible? Yes it is. Rows cancel out. Q B equal Q 2,

is it the same area? Yes it is same outer pipe. VB equal V2, VB equal V2, VB V2. You

want to find PB? Here it is. PB equal gamma times Z2 minus ZB. Yeah, so no we can find

PB. Don’t say it’s gamma times H, why? Because the flow is moving at point B, it’s not fully

static. You got to find H, you just found PB I told you right there PB, you found PB

there it is right there. And now guess what? Now you solve for H. So, yeah, you can write

many Bernoulli’s, but do it correctly. If somebody says what’s the pressure far away

from the entrance is the key. What’s the pressure in the corner? H times gamma. And the reason

why? Because you’re so far from the entrance to the 2 that the fluid is almost at rest

at that point, almost at rest at that point. And we’re going to assume it’s at rest at

that point. The velocity is essentially zero at that point. So, there’s lots of ways to

solve that problem that you have for homework. And by the way, you are asked to find the

stagnation pressure. You want to make it, you want to start everyone, go all the way

around until you get to there. Or if you’d rather, go from Bernoulli’s go from 2 to there.

If you start from here at 1 you know H you’re typically given this distance right there.

I think in your case it might be the same as that height is the same height as that.

You’re given that height, OK, which is a height of 3 like that. So, if you go from here, 1

to 2 or 1 to 3 [inaudible], 1 to 3. What’s the velocity at 3? Zero. What’s the elevation,

3 Z3, I know what usually. What’s the pressure of 3, stagnation pressure, I’m supposed to

find that, unknown, solve for P3 because P3 is P static. If I know velocity zero, pressure

zero, elevation, yes, H. That’s how I find stagnant pressure. You want to start here,

not a problem. Do I know the velocity here, yeah, I just solve for it right there, right

there. I know V2. Do I know P2, yes zero. Do I know Z2, given to me. Over here, do I

know Z, yes I know Z. Do I know velocity, yes I know velocity zero. What’s the unknown

equation? Between 2 and 3, the only unknown P3, solve for stagnation pressure, does it.

So, you can do this problem more than one way. You know, it doesn’t matter if you write

the equations down and I forge the rule. If you can, put down where you know the most

of. What’s here, Z, P, V. What’s up here, Z, P, V and Bernoulli’s. What do I know? I

know it, I know it, I know it. Good. Over here you’ve got point 2, what do I know? Guess

what, one equation, one unknown. Now I go from 1 to 3. Z, P, V. Do I know V, yes I do.

Do I know Z, yes I know. Do I know Z1, yes. Do I know P1, yes. Do I know V1, yes. Our

unknown? A. That’s the way you play the game. So, you logically think those things out.>>Will we ever be asked or is it possibility

to be asked like how high the see the bend on the hose on the bottom by point 2, would

be–>>No, which one now, I’m sorry.>>The furthest left height.>>Left?>>The height, they have not labeled.>>The height right there?>>No, the height of the bend.>>Oh, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah this line.>>Yeah. Is that variable, does that affect

the– do that affect the Velocity like if it were lower would that decrease the Velocity

coming out of the 2?>>What does continuity say for steady state?

What comes in must go out.>>OK.>>Same area, incompressible, what’s constant?

Continuity say, the Velocity entering here must be the Velocity leaving here no matter

how far and how many bends this thing makes.>>No, I mean like if it were closer to the

ground.>>It doesn’t matter where I put this pipe.

OK, I put this pipe 50 feet below the ground.>>OK.>>What’s the velocity here? Well I’ll tell

you. It’s the same as the velocity here and it’s the same as the velocity there, and it’s

the same as the velocity– why do I know that? Conservation of mass.>>I’m asking if that would change all those

Velocities.>>Oh, yeah. I’ve got to give you something

else. No, I can’t give– saying this is unknown. I’ve got to give you something else and now

I can solve the problem, right. Because you have so many equations there’s so many unknowns,

so oh yeah. I could ask for that, but I’ve got to give you that something else.>>OK.>>Yeah, but the flow rate is 53 feet per

second. What is H, this is negation now.>>Yeah.>>See.>>Yap.>>Right, sure. OK, good stopping finding

for a day, so we’ll see you then on Monday. If you didn’t turn homework again please turn

it in. If you didn’t pick up homework it’s up here and tomorrow so pick up.

Excellent Professor

incredible job

Dr. Biddle helping me review for the FE!

thank you dr.john biddle

Literally haven't come across anyone who explains fluids any better on youtube or my own prof. Much appreciated from the UK.

I am taking Fluid Mechanics in the summer and the professor is good but moves way too fast. However, with your videos I am able to understand everything that's going on in class now.Thank you!

CPP made my life complete at 23:10 when he said area vector always points OUTWARD from CS. I could never figure out why solutions showed +a1p1 or -a1p1.

Excellent lecture and video quality.

THANK U SO MUCH

Can somebody explain how steady flow results in the time rate of change of the B inside the control volume being zero? 🙁

10x better than my own prof.

any other courses thermo II is deadly needed plzz help me out

51:00 how is H= 3.19 ft? Can someone explain the calculation step by step?

thank you for the series of videos!

The best Fluid Prof, I came across.CPP & prof appreciated for their efforts. if similar videos on index notation, 3d stress, strain of solid mechanics it will be good.

At 38:15 Dr. Biddle mentioned the "stagnation pressure at the wall". Yet in the previous nozzle example, we assumed that the pressure at the nozzle exit was zero gauge. So, it would seem that there can be some kind of pressure in the stream. How far away from the wall does a point need to be to have zero pressure?

Dr. Biddle probably teaches more students through these videos than he does in the classroom! Much appreciated, these have been a tremendous help!

Thank you, you’ve saved my life!

Thank you it helped a lot. ''Helal olsun'' from Turkey

love and salute from india.

I wonder why our professors spend 80 minutes on the derivation of an equation and only the remaining 10 minutes on its application. This video is exactly what students in engineering need!!! Thank you so much.

the lecture is great but one question

in problem 3.50 where is the Datum line is Situated

Please help me on this Datum line helps alot in such problems.

I salute prof……i enjoy your lectures from Ghana

bro -.5 points? my professor gives -15/35 tf

at 1:07:40 is P1 in the equation P1+Gamma*H equal to Patm?

Thanks for this , certainly helped with Fluids understanding.

Thank you very much, I'm from saudi arabia and because of your lessons I've got A+.

Is the pressure in Boutneulli equation gauge pressure ?

In the problem starting at 0:31:00 how can a liquid be pushed if the tube at the top is at a higher height with respect to the tank?

how can i find the rest of the videos

thank u dr Biddle

One thing I don't get is how we can say a certain surface isn't moving, v=0, yet at the end of the tube it is flowing with some velocity. Is this because we are analyzing an instantaneous moment?