Astronomers Find Invisible Galaxies That Change Everything We Know About Science

Astronomers Find Invisible Galaxies That Change Everything We Know About Science


Ok, so here’s some space 101 for you. You know what a planet is, right? You’re sitting on one at this moment in
time. It’s Earth, your home. We are the third rock from the sun. The first is Mercury, ‘cos he’s closest
to that energy giver, the Sun. Our family is called the Solar System. The planets, dust, rocks, moons, asteroids,
are all in this family. But that’s just one Sun, and it is part
of what you could call an extended family, which is called a galaxy. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way, which
is kind of cute. It consists of maybe 200 – 400 billion stars
and maybe perhaps in the region of 800 billion planets. Some planets are star-less, orphans, and they
are called rogue planets. We apologize if you are now groaning and saying,
“C’mon, everyone knows that,” but if you didn’t know and we told you today’s
story it wouldn’t really make any sense. You might have been surprised to hear that
we said there are maybe 200 – 400 billion stars in our galaxy and maybe 100 – 200
billion galaxies altogether in the entire universe. Well, you might also read two trillion galaxies,
but we’ll talk about that later. In just the Milky Way there could be 100 billion
planets, or as we said 800 billion. The numbers keep changing. Talk about an inexact science, surely astronomers
can do better than that? Well, not really, but they are already doing
a pretty impressive job. To understand what they are working with you
have to first understand how big things are. Before you think they should do a better job,
imagine standing at the top of a mountain and then being told to count all the ants
in the world around you. You couldn’t, and astronomers simply can’t
count everything in this universe. They make informed guesses based on what they
do know and then extrapolate, something you could probably do with your ant-counting conundrum. The universe, er, is big. We guess you know that, but do you know how
big? The nearest galaxy to ours is called the Andromeda
Galaxy, and that in terms of the bigger picture is just down the street. It’s our closest neighbor, our bosom-bigger-buddy. If our galaxy wanted to borrow some milk,
it would just pop around to Andromeda. But it’s actually 2.537 million light years
away. A light year is the distance light travels
in a year. That means if we travelled at the speed of
light, which is approximately 186,000 miles per second (300,000 km per second), it would
take us 2.537 million years to get there, and that’s our next-door neighbor. Consider that the fastest any human has ever
travelled was inside that old clunker Apollo 10, and that chugged along at 24,790 mph (39,897km/h). One day apparently the Milky Way and Andromeda
will hook-up, according to astronomers. They will merge, but that love story won’t
be completed for quite a few billion years so don’t go getting excited just yet. But as it’s getting closer some people say
if we sent a probe there now it might reach Andromeda in a mere 3.9 billion years. We hope now you understand just what astronomers
are working with. That’s why the numbers are not accurate,
the dammed universe is just too big to observe with any clarity, especially once we start
looking further afield. So NASA tells us our Milky Way might have
200 billion stars, or it might have 400 billion stars. Most experts tell us that to the visible eye
here on Earth at best you could probably count 5,000 stars. Go out to the desert and give it go. We recommend it as a sleep aid, or an exercise
in making you feel humble down here on our blessed rock. But we have toys, and those toys help us to
see further. You don’t have a chance standing on that
mountain in North America counting ants in a garden far, far away, but NASA has the Hubble
Space Telescope and it is pretty amazing. It can do things like look at a patch of space
for 10 whole years and it will come up with an image which is called the Hubble eXtreme
Deep Field. So, what was the outcome of this image? Thousands of galaxies were revealed, and they
were in the deepest reaches of the universe, farther than we have ever seen. But this patch was in space-terms just a spot,
like if you pointed your finger to the sky and made a dot. Thousands of galaxies were in that one spot,
and inside those galaxies were billions of stars. As for changing numbers of galaxies, in 2016
some scientists said there were more galaxies in the visible universe than first thought,
and it could hold something like 2 trillion of them. Each would contain millions or billions of
stars, and a whole load of planets. Again, this is a very rough estimate. We think we should expand on why billions
turned to trillions, so here goes. As Forbes wrote in 2018, for a long time just
how many galaxies there are in the universe has been a thing of mystery. We thought perhaps there were thousands, then
millions, and then billions. Telescopes kept getting better and the number
kept increasing. As we said before, for quite a while now we
thought there were maybe somewhere from 200 to 400 billion, but then all of a sudden-
bang- we hear two trillion. Astronomers over time had more advanced equipment
and began to see galaxies that couldn’t be seen before. But as things go, some things are so faint
it’s hard to see them, and some galaxies are are caught up in the expansion of the
Universe and they can be undetectable. This poses a problem when you are trying to
count galaxies. Then technology got better again, and scientists
pointed at small places in space and observed what they called a “narrow, pencil-like
beam.” As said before, astronomers could see how
many galaxies there were in that small space and then extrapolate for the rest of the universe. But there is a young and old universe, and
it keeps evolving. They see the effect of dark matter and dark
energy,as well as small, seed fluctuations. These will grow and in time become stars,
more galaxies, and more clusters of galaxies. Because of this constant evolution of the
universe scientists have now upped the ante, saying that it’s possible that there are
two trillion galaxies. As the Forbes article states, “The faintest,
smallest, most distant galaxies of all are continuing to go undiscovered, but we know
they must be there. For the first time, we can scientifically
estimate how many galaxies are out there in the Universe.” The writer says we are just starting to get
a grip on what he calls the cosmic puzzle, and beginning to understand just how the universe
grew up. This is important in regards to today’s
show. Of course it’s not an exact science because
as we said some galaxies are invisible or faint, so scientists infer how many there
could be. Otherwise they would tell us there are like
two trillion and 58 galaxies. And here you are sat on your bed on planet
Earth thinking you are the center of the universe! If you are now feeling insignificant don’t
worry, the fact you are thinking about it is pretty special in itself. Now let’s get to the real topic of today’s
video. We’ve digressed somewhat, but we feel that
now that you have a picture of the universe in your head the topic will make more sense. As you now know, there are lots of galaxies
not visible to astronomers but all the time they are on the look out for more. And as we write this they have done just that,
galaxies some astronomers have called “primordial beasts.” If you don’t know what primordial means,
it’s related to things that exist from the beginning of time. Researchers at the Institute of Astronomy
at the University of Tokyo said the Hubble Telescope just couldn’t see some galaxies
due to their long wavelengths being invisible to any eye and undetectable by a telescope. So, they turned to something called the Atacama
Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, aka, ALMA. It’s shared by a bunch of countries and
it wasn’t a cheap telescope, coming it at $1.4 billion. An expensive piece of equipment if ever there
was one. But ALMA, according to these researchers,
is worth every cent because it’s just found these new galaxies. Those astronomers say they have just discovered
a huge bunch of massive galaxies that were formed close to the beginning of the universe. As you know, there was a big bang, and that
was something like 13.7 billion years ago. The universe was extremely hot and dense,
and then things cooled down and the conditions were right for matter to build. Those scientists believe the new galaxies
were around in the beginning. They have been called a “missing link”
in the evolution of galaxies, said to be the ancestors of the modern-day massive galaxies. For a long time astronomers have been working
on something called the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, aka, CANDELS. They observe galaxies in order to try and
figure out galactic evolution. We can call this the cosmic dawn, when galaxies
formed, and the cosmic noon, a period of vigorous star formation in those galaxies. So those astronomers looked closely at 63
infrared-bright galaxies in what’s called the CANDELS field. Something called the Spitzer Space Telescope
could detect infrared radiation in those fields, but it would just disappear when looked at
through near-visible wavebands. This might all sound confusing, so let’s
just say ALMA did detect these galaxies. What were once invisible galaxies became visible. These galaxies are said to be bursting with
new stars, but they are covered by dust and hard to see. So these new galaxies it’s thought came
about around one to three billion years after the big bang. Stars were formed, but stars also died. When they die, they create dust. Supernova explosions are messy affairs, a
galactic version of a full vacuum-cleaner bag bursting. The thing is, according to one American expert
in galaxy evolution, astronomers are unsure why there was so much dust so soon in the
formation of those galaxies. It was too early for so much dust. That expert said this about the mess, “This
means we do not understand star formation in the early universe. Theory is, as of this paper, based on outdated
observations.” The leading researcher in Tokyo said this
could teach us a lot about the formation of the universe. He told the media, “This is the first time
that such a large population of massive galaxies was confirmed during the first two billion
years of the 13.7-billion-year life of the universe.” These galaxies that were invisible could be
that missing link. He said these new galaxies might help us to
learn more about this stuff called invisible dark matter, which is important when we are
thinking about the structure and formation of galaxies. We might come to know galaxies’ precise
ages and what part they played in the evolution of the universe. In Earthly terms it’s like finding something
in the fossil record that gives us more insight regarding the beginning of life on this planet. As another U.S. astronomer put it, “This
is a surprise the universe had for us.” What do you think about all of this? Are you excited as those star-gazing scientists
are or don’t really care? Tell us in the comments. Also, be sure to check out our other video
What Are Some Mysterious Objects in Space We Can’t Explain Yet? Thanks for watching, and as always, don’t
forget to like, share and subscribe. See you next time.

100 thoughts on “Astronomers Find Invisible Galaxies That Change Everything We Know About Science

  • October 1, 2019 at 12:29 pm
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    If you could call dibs on naming the first inhabitable planet discovered how would you name it?

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 7:59 am
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    6:36 FLAT EARTHERS COMING YOU BETTER DO SOMETHING ABOUT THAT LEFT IMAGE .

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 8:09 am
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    Black holes

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 8:13 am
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    Hey I’m in the video ^^

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 10:49 am
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    omfg i love these animations

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 11:42 am
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    I counted up to 10 and couldn't see any more stars 🙁

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 3:21 pm
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    We live in a simulation .

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 4:47 pm
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    are they of the colour human eyes cannot see?

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 4:49 pm
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    So many opportunities to say "space is big."

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 5:37 pm
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    The Infographics Show I think it’s highly unlikely that we will ever truly know anything about the universe. Ants have more chance of knowing everything about earth than we do anything about the universe.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 6:23 pm
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    This is the almighty allahs first heaven and he is the creator of seven heavens (Allahu akbar )my friend let’s ask ask allahs forgiveness

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 7:24 pm
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    10 minute video about invinsible galaxies, 5 minutes of exposition.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:09 pm
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    Wait…what? Thought we knew this lile 5 years ago? Why did I think this was commen knowledge?

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:45 pm
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    I love ❤️ Science

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 10:04 pm
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    SCIENCE ✔️ View reply 4 Proof

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 11:30 pm
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    It is quite informative. But do we really know if the big bang happened 13 or 14 billion years ago? They're all kinds of new questions to be added.

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 2:07 am
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    Based on how far away those galaxies are and how long it would take for their light to reach us , those galaxies probably stopped existing billions of years ago but were just seeing them now

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 2:23 am
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    WHERE IS PLUTO ON THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 4:32 am
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    6:30 for people who don't keep their thoughts bound to this rock called earth.

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 6:43 am
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    How did they found it when its invisible

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 12:28 pm
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    Three ads in a 10 min long video? F*ckin YouTube eyeroll

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 10:19 pm
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    Oh we found *Invisble* galaxies oh wow so real

    Reply
  • October 4, 2019 at 1:39 am
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    If the universe is expanding faster than the speed of light. (explosion) we will never be able to "see" it since you need light to even see color?

    Reply
  • October 4, 2019 at 3:41 am
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    There is life on other planets, we just don't know it yet

    Maybe even in our galaxy. There are billions of stars and planets after all.

    Reply
  • October 4, 2019 at 8:33 am
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    There’s more cells in our body than galaxies (we think) their are in the universe. That’s crazy.

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 5:00 am
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    You just explaing how ants are compared to earth as humans to universe… 👏👏👏👏

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 5:43 am
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    Theres a star thats 3 billion years older then the universe and predates the big bang

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 6:21 am
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    The title of this is sensationalist and doesn’t actually make reasonable sense. The idea that something changed “everything we know about science” is absurd and a gross misunderstanding/ oversimplification of what science is. Titles like these make it difficult for me to take this channel’s information seriously.

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 12:13 pm
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    Put pluto back in the family tf

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 2:25 pm
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    The total number of intelligent life forms in our galaxy alone is greater than the total number of species on our planet :). Please digest that fact.

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 4:10 pm
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    there’s more trees in our planet than the estimated number of planets in our milky way galaxy

    Reply
  • October 5, 2019 at 6:26 pm
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    Cool love it

    Reply
  • October 6, 2019 at 6:30 am
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    Who initiated the Big Bang? Who created particles for a Big bang to happen?

    Reply
  • October 6, 2019 at 7:57 am
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    Invisible billy adventures

    Reply
  • October 6, 2019 at 1:45 pm
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    An advert every sentence isn't really necessary.

    Reply
  • October 6, 2019 at 10:00 pm
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    How they find invisible object?

    Reply
  • October 7, 2019 at 5:43 am
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    Wow, counting 5000 stars as night. Here in Australia, you'd be lucky enough to even get like 50

    Reply
  • October 7, 2019 at 4:22 pm
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    60% into the video
    "Now let's get to the real toppic"

    Reply
  • October 8, 2019 at 8:25 pm
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    We will never know the mystery’s of our universe, unless aliens tell us what they know but our government’s won’t let them.

    Reply
  • October 8, 2019 at 8:27 pm
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    1111

    Reply
  • October 11, 2019 at 9:51 am
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    We are ants!

    Reply
  • October 11, 2019 at 5:29 pm
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    Hubble deep field image was taken over 10 days, not years lol.

    Reply
  • October 12, 2019 at 1:06 pm
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    6:23 finishes explaining basics.

    Reply
  • October 12, 2019 at 9:05 pm
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    K3 civilizations?

    Reply
  • October 13, 2019 at 6:37 am
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    Not the center but it is flat.

    Reply
  • October 15, 2019 at 12:58 pm
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    You probably set a record on YouTube for most ads within 10 minutes.

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 12:29 pm
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    6:34
    You’re welcome c:

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 5:37 pm
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    Lol I thought this was a kurzegeptjsjekejfn video

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 7:59 pm
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    IF the galaxies where invisible how could the scientists see it?

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 11:40 pm
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    Literally every youtuber keeps saying digress.

    Reply
  • October 17, 2019 at 3:22 am
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    Answer this, if everything in space is moving away from each other than how come milkyway is on collision course with andromeda? As Donald Trump would have said. "Wrong! WRONG!!"

    Reply
  • October 17, 2019 at 9:16 pm
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    03:34 10 days*

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 2:53 am
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    Hubble looked for 10 days, not years to get the deep field image.

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 8:50 pm
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    Have you said " looking at patch for THEN WHOLE YEARS" ? I think tou misspoke 😂😂😂

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 1:44 am
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    2:36
    Basically me and my crush ._.

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 2:34 am
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    Actually you are your universe, so I don't think you got to worry about it 😂

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 4:20 pm
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    This is the worst science communication channel. Droning on and on, wasting our time.

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 4:20 pm
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    When you are early and TRYING HARD to think of a joke and fail!

    WELL THATS THE SITUATION WITH ME RIGHT NOW. SO STOP LOOKING AT ME LIKE THAT

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 5:00 pm
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    How can they discover a invisible galaxy 🤔

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 1:54 am
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    These slow-motion bobble head cartoon characters don’t have any fingers. But why?

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 2:21 am
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    The more we as humans explore the universe the more it expands. Duh. And besides 74% Dark Matter is easily the most evil things that happen in the universe so to speak.

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 2:50 am
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    Pretty sweet!

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 4:14 am
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    You are uninformed. The Milky Way is estimated to have over 1 trillion brown dwarf stars as well.

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 11:36 am
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    The math doesn't work if they say our known universe is 13.7 billion years old but it's also 46.5 billion lght years wide.

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 7:00 pm
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    If your only estimating 2 planets for every star you're going to really be disappointed.

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 2:58 am
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    Correction- I'm actually sitting on a toilet right now.

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 8:08 am
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    Love the sarcasm

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 11:49 am
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    Extends video to 10:14 for extra cash 💰

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 1:20 pm
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    When we look at the stars we are looking into the past. Every astronomical body outside of our galaxy is as real as Schrödinger’s cat. We have no proof that anything we observe out there is still actually there. A galaxy could have imploded a million years ago but its 3 million light years away. That leaves 2 million years of people on earth observing the energy from that galaxy, and witnessing/calculating the effects of that galaxy, without the galaxy existing anymore.
    If our sun vanished instantly, we would still see it for 8 minutes. The Earth would continue rotating around its natural orbit for that eight minutes because we will still feel the heat and the gravity from the missing sun. So for eight minutes, would we be witnessing dark energy??

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 4:28 pm
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    I love Physics and Astronomy and nothing else 💓

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 5:38 pm
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    "everything you know about star might change completely" after degree in astronomy

    Reply
  • October 21, 2019 at 11:35 pm
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    The thumbnail looks like a Kurzgesagt thumbnail lol

    Reply
  • October 22, 2019 at 3:09 am
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    how could galaxies can exist if the earth is plane

    Reply
  • October 22, 2019 at 6:54 am
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    Idk how they confirm this “discovery” just seems so hypothetical.

    Reply
  • October 22, 2019 at 9:48 am
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    have you worked out we are liveing in a simulated reality..can't possibly accept it can you ..you will cause that's where it's all pointing. none of it out there is real your eyes are lying to you.

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 5:55 am
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    I like how you actively tried to mask the fact that you're dragging the video out to 10 min

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 6:37 am
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    How the f they found them if they invisible

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 8:59 am
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    so does that mean I was right and that it's not dark matter but just really hard to see galaxies???

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 9:59 pm
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    Almost as many galaxies in the universe as there are Ads in this video…

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 12:22 am
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    2:20 well, technically you would reach Andromeda easily within your lifetime at 99.9999% the speed of light. Thanks time dilation

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 12:45 am
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    Standing on Pluto and counting every grain of sand on earth is more like it

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 1:52 am
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    Hola

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 2:21 am
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    I don't really care that's why I watched this video lol

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 5:43 pm
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    So you bored me to death waiting on the point. Bye.

    Reply
  • October 25, 2019 at 4:00 am
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    the extreme deep field wasn't made from looking at a patch of space for 10 whole years like the video suggests. It periodically checked that spot over the course of 10 years and then compiled the data to make a single image. The photo was taken over 50 days with about 2 million seconds worth of exposure time

    Reply
  • October 26, 2019 at 11:49 am
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    Preapred civillzation future

    Reply
  • October 26, 2019 at 11:53 pm
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    I think Hubble scope looked at the patch of sky for ten whole days, not year! 🙂

    Reply
  • October 27, 2019 at 6:09 am
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    With that many galaxies, there is no doubt there’s other habitable planets out there with life, whether it’s just starting or has already evolved to our intellect or further… No doubt.

    Reply
  • October 27, 2019 at 9:13 am
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    the universe is expanding faster than we can discover

    Reply
  • October 27, 2019 at 9:19 am
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    Jesus chill with the ads

    Reply
  • October 28, 2019 at 8:26 am
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    So star wars might bea eral thing

    Reply
  • October 28, 2019 at 12:35 pm
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    3:33 But it didn't look for 10 years to get that shot.

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 5:58 am
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    You have too many ads

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 2:01 am
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    Say huh?!

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 9:53 am
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    1.4 billion? That's nothing with the price of tomahawk missiles nowa days.

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 1:11 pm
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    I was hoping that they would say something like: "Scientists have found evidence of Galaxies made out of dark matter ". That would have been awesome.

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 2:45 pm
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    If I could do one thing, it would be doing this. I love astronomy,

    Reply
  • November 1, 2019 at 2:03 am
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    Nothing worse than a commercial while reading the comments.

    Reply
  • November 1, 2019 at 7:06 am
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    Human's heads are nodding.

    Reply
  • November 1, 2019 at 11:25 pm
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    To think there is no other civilizations out there in the universe is ignorant

    Reply

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